Expert System in Artificial Intelligence
In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making capacity of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, mainly by representing the rules, rather than by conventional procedural code.
- Medical diagnosis system is an example of an intelligent agent.
Dendral was a pioneering project that influenced artificial intelligence (IA) of 1960 and the software expert computer system that is produced. The main objective was to establish the formation of hypotheses and scientific discovery. To do so, a specific task is chosen in science: to help organic chemists in the identification of unknown organic molecules, analyzed by their mass spectra and using the knowledge of chemistry. The software to develop the DENDRAL expert system is considered the first because it has an automatic decision-making process and the problem-solving behavior of organic chemicals. The project consists of two major research programs the development of Heuristics Dendral and Meta-develop Dendral.
Mycin was an early regressive binding expert system, which used artificial intelligence to identify bacteria that have severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis, and recommend antibiotics, with the dose adjusted for the patient’s body weight-the name derived from the antibiotics themselves, as many antibiotics have the suffix- “-Mycin “. The Mycin system has also been used for the diagnosis of blood clotting diseases. The MYCIN was developed for about five or six years at the beginning of 1970 at Stanford University. MYCIN was never actually used in practice, but research indicated that it offered acceptable therapy in about 69% of cases, which is better than the performance of infectious disease experts who were evaluated with the same criteria.
Prospector, computerized consultation program for mining exploration. The mechanisms of mineral deposit models represented by the conclusion of the network rules and general approaches to alternative decision-making methods are explained. Prospector, one of the first expert computer systems in the world, to help geologists in mineral exploration. The system has been tested in the process of knowledge and reasoning of geologists. Its main use is planned by geological exploration in the early stages of the investigation of possible drilling sites. The Prospector predict the existence of a molybdenum deposit so far unknown in the state of Washington
is one of the eldest common purpose computer algebra systems which is quite broadly used.
Expert System Applications:
Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Devices and Systems of All Kinds
This class consists of systems that lead to errors and suggest corrective measures for a broken device or process. The medical diagnosis was one of the first areas of knowledge in which the technology is applied is (for example, see Shortliffe 1976), but the diagnosis of the manipulated systems quickly exceeds the medical diagnosis. There are probably more diagnostic applications than any other type.
Planning and Scheduling
The systems that enter this class analyze a series of one or more potentially complex and interacting objectives to determine a series of actions to achieve these objectives, and/or a detailed temporal order of these actions, taking into account the Account staff, equipment, and other restrictions. This class has great commercial potential, this statement. Examples: Scheduled flight, personnel and portals; Planning of production work-workshop; and planning of manufacturing processes.
Financial Decision Making
The financial services sector is a strong user of experienced systems techniques. Advice-giving systems are made to assist bankers to determine that loans are made to companies and individuals. Insurance companies have to use expert systems to assess the customer’s risk and determine a price for the insurance. A typical application in financial markets is in currency trading.
It is a relatively new area, but also potentially explosive. The main function of the expert system is to produce knowledge relevant to the user’s problem as part of the user’s problem. The two most used expert systems in the world belong to this category. The first is a consultant advising a user on the correct grammatical use in a text. The second is a tax counselor that accompanies and advises users of a tax policy & tax preparation program.